One of the main characteristics of diabetes is the tendency to increase blood glucose (hyperglycemia), which must be treated or prevented on a frequent and timely basis, to avoid causing serious complications in the short, medium, or long term.
Diabetes is a chronic disease in which blood sugar levels (glycemia) tend to rise due to defects in the absorption of glucose by organs and tissues derived from the inadequate function of insulin (hormone produced in the pancreas responsible for promoting / allowing the absorption of glucose) causing what is known as hyperglycemia.
In people with diabetes mellitus, there are several variables that can contribute to hyperglycemia, some of the main ones are: an inadequate choice of food; sedentary lifestyle; have other chronic diseases, in addition to diabetes; o stop consuming or applying the indicated medications (oral antidiabetics or insulin, as appropriate) for the treatment of diabetes; among others.
Keep in mind that other risk factors such as stress can cause hyperglycemia, because the hormones that the body produces to fight this state (cortisol and others) can also lead to increased blood sugar levels.
When a person’s glycemic values exceed 126 mg / dl (milligrams per deciliter of blood) on an empty stomach and 200 mg / dl two hours after a glucose load it is understood that he has diabetes. In a patient already diagnosed with diabetes, hyperglycemia usually does not cause symptoms until blood glucose levels rise significantly; that is, they reach values above 240 mg / dl. In patients diagnosed with diabetes, it is very necessary to be strict in the control of hyperglycemia because it can lead to emergencies such as a hyperglycemic coma.
It is important that you know how to identify the usual symptoms of hyperglycemia so that you can treat them immediately and avoid possible complications in both the short and long term - including diabetic ketoacidosis or, if hyperglycemia persists for long periods of time: conditions in the eyes (retinopathy), the kidneys (nephropathy), the nerves (neuropathy) and the heart (heart disease); among other-. Pay attention to the following signs on time and see your doctor if you develop:
- Frequent urination
- Increased thirst
- Blurry vision
- Fatigue or tiredness
- Exaggerated hunger
- Weight loss
American Diabetes Association [website]. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) [accessed March 10, 2020]. Available at: https://www.diabetes.org/diabetes/medication-management/blood-glucose-testing-and-control/hyperglycemia
ALAD Magazine (Latin American Diabetes Association) [PDF]. ALAD Guidelines on the Diagnosis, Control and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Evidence-Based Medicine 2019 Edition [accessed March 9, 2020]. Available at: http://www.revistaalad.com/guias/5600AX191_guias_alad_2019.pdf
Pan American Health Organization [PDF]. Diagnostic and Management Guide (18) / Part II: Hyperglycemia Diabetes Mellitus [accessed March 10, 2020]. Available at: http://www.sld.cu/galerias/pdf/sitios/gericuba/guia18.pdf